CLASS NOTES!
GIGLIOTTI’S CLASS NOTES
ROAD TO THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

KEY TERMS:
English: the nation or people of England
Colonists: people who live in the 13 English colonies (most are citizens of UK)

BACKGROUND INFORMATION:
-in England the idea that kings ruled by God given “Divine Right” ends (Glorious Rev.)
-for the colonies, this means that England will exert more control over them
-England will begin to start enforcing the Navigation Acts (no more Salutary Neglect)
-series of wars in Europe (World Wars really)
-1688-1697 King William’s War (England attacks France at Quebec – fails)
-1702-1713 Queen Ann’s War (War of Spanish Succession) attacks on Port Royal on St. Lawrence – use of Indian mercenaries – mostly guerrilla warfare
-1713 Peace of Ultrecht –England gets Nova Scotia & 2 Carr. Islands
-Spain loses territory in Italy & Austria (Gibraltar to Spain)
-Colonists were used to fight in these wars and taxed to pay for them
-after 1713 Parliament & the king tighten control over the colonies
-result more navigation acts were passed & increased smuggling by colonists
-1744-1748 King George’s War (War of Austria Succession)

THE SEVEN YEARS WAR: (1756-1763)
-war fought in Europe, North America, & India
-the part of the war fought in North America is called the:

THE FRENCH & INDIAN WAR:
-colonists will need increased cooperation and defense
-many powerful Indian tribes (Iroquois & Creeks) will play a role
-France in the North America controls the colony of Quebec & other areas (New France)
-New France slow population growth, controlled by king, most valuable resource are furs, cities include Detroit, Cadallac, New Orleans, Quebec
-the fighting in Europe will spread to North America
-Competition between England & France in North America
-many English land speculators (including G. Washington) claim lands (500,000 acres) in disputed territory – France also claims the land
-French built a series of forts in these areas (Duquesne)
-fighting will soon break out
*Native Americans will fight on the side of France (except Iroquois)
-the French & Indian War

EVENTS OF THE WAR:
-1754 Governor Dinwiddle (Virginia) sends Major George Washington (age 21) and 150 men to tell the French to get out of the area near the Allegany & Monongahela rivers – the French have a fort located there call Fort Duquesne
-Washington attacks a small French force outside the fort
-Washington waits for the counter attack and builds Fort Necessity to defend his men
-1754 Battle of Great Meadows
-French attack Fort Necessity – force Washington to surrender the fort on July 4th
-Washington & his men withdraw back to Virginia


 

 

 

THE ALBANY PLAN OF UNION (1754)
-proposed by Ben Franklin
-delegates from 7 colonies & Iroquois met in Albany New York
-discussed Indian raids along the border caused by French aggression
-Franklin’s Plan – to centralize & unify colonial defense problems & Indian affairs
-calls for a GRAND COUNCIL
-elected colonial assembly (2-7 delegates per colony)
-led by a President General appointed by the King
-taxes to pay for a single unified armed services for all colonies
-regulate trade, Indian relations, & boundary disputes
-plan is rejected by colonies (feared losing power & did not like army)
-plan is rejected by king (did not like colonial army- threat to the crown)
*significance – 1st attempt to unify the colonies (not ready yet)

THE WAR CONTINUES:
-1755 England sends a General to lead the colonial army
-General Braddock
-Braddock & the English attack Ft. Duquesne for a second time
-Washington warns Braddock that classic European style warfare will not work
-European warfare calls for large columns of men lined up across from each other
-Battle of the Wilderness: England is badly defeated – Braddock is killed
-French & Indians use guerilla tactics (hide, spread out)
-1756 the war is going very bad for England in both North America & Europe
-England & Prussia vs. France & Austria
-1757 New leadership in England
-William Pitt “Great Commoner” takes over as Prime Minister
-Pitts decides to try to win the war in North America first
-sends troops, excellent generals, & money
-balance of power shifts to the English
-1758 England attacks & captures Ft. Duquesne rename Ft. Pitt (Pittsburgh)
-1759 French withdraw from Ticonderoga & Crown Point – English capture Ft. Niagara

-1759 BATTLE OF QUEBEC:
General Wolfe (English) vs. General Montcalm (French)
-Quebec City was well defended (large cliffs on one side)
-Wolfe knew most of the French troops would not be defending the cliffs
-British scale the cliffs and attack the city on the Plains of Abraham
-British win the battle and the war in North America
-French driven out of Canada (other French forts near Great Lakes were deserted)

THE TREATY OF PARIS (1763):
-France gives up all claims to Canada to England
-France gives up all land East of the Mississippi River to England
-West Indies go back to the control of the nation before the war
-Spain receives more land west of Mississippi plus the city of New Orleans in another European treaty (Treaty of Ildefonso 1762)

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR:
-England & the colonies worked together to defeat France – created pride in Empire
-the war left England victorious, but broke – no more foreign threats – no longer needed the colonies for protection – no more Salutary Neglect – Navigation Acts enforced
-England needed taxes to raise revenue. Since the colonies benefited from the war(safety from French & Indian attacks) they should pay for it with taxes
-debt = 140 million pounds (English money)
-colonists had seen that English troops were not invincible – British officers had treated colonial soldiers with no respect  -colonist began to smuggle goods to Spain & West Indies to avoid Navigation Acts

ROAD TO REVOLUTION:

THE COLONIES:
-each colony acted alone and was unique (not much interaction between colonies)
-were not unified because of distances, geographic barriers, conflicting religions, boundry disputes, nationalities, governments, economic classes
-however the colonies did have some things in common such as the French & Indian War (found out that the colonies had more in common than they thought) – they did not need England’s protection anymore

PONTIAC’S REBELLION (1763):
-English settlers had been moving further and further west (over Alleghenies)
-Native Americans were upset about their expansion
-Indians near the Great Lakes lead by Pontiac wiped out several English ports and towns
-actions were taken in what is now Michigan (Detroit area)
-British retaliated cruelly with blankets contaminated with small pox

PROCLAMATION LINE OF 1763:
-England wanted to keep the peace with Indians & did not want to pay for the colonists protection west of the Allegheny Mountains
-the line prohibited Colonial settlement west of the Allegheny mountains
-Colonists were upset – they felt they were being punished because it prevented them from gaining access to new lands
-difficult for England to enforce

*England’s need to pay off war debts & to keep garrisons in the colonies caused them to take the following actions concerning the colonists.

-1763-1764 Navigation Acts are to be strictly enforced (end of Salutary Neglect)
-set up a British court in Halifax to try cases of tax evasion
-Admiralty Courts (no jury – defendant is guilty until proven innocent)
-gets cases out of colonial courts (English judges not Colonial Judges)
-officials from England collect taxes not colonists
-increased number of English soldiers – 10,000 in coastal towns
-tax officials were given WRITS OF ASSISTANCE (search warrants) that did not have to be specific – could search for no reason

-1764 SUGAR ACT: increased duty (or tax) on sugar imported from the West Indies
-smuggling increased – colonists protested – duty was lowered

-1765 THE QUARTERING ACT:
-requires colonist to provide food and quarters for British troops
-make the British army cheaper to maintain & keeps colonists in line

-1765 THE STAMP ACT:
-intended to raise revenue to support the military
-all colonists must have any paper products stamped proving that they had paid the tax
-cost anywhere between .10 cents and $10.00 on over 50 items such as documents, playing cards, papers, diplomas, licenses, etc.
-tax had been used in England for two generations
-colonists claimed that it took away local rights
-they began to refuse the Quartering Act – many sent to Admiralty Courts (no jury – defendant is guilty until proven innocent) – this violates the English Bill of Rights


 

“NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION”
-to the surprise of the English, the colonist react violently to the Stamp Act
-cry of “No Taxation . . .” became popular
-riots break out in New York, Charlestown, New Port, & other cities
-colonists burned the homes of British officials & drove many out of town
-colonists were only willing to pay taxes passed by their own colonial legislature
-colonists did not want reps. in Parliament (too few numbers wise to count)
-they wanted more local representation – taxes levied by colonial legislatures

-1765 THE STAMP ACT CONGRESS:
-meeting held in New York City – attended by 9 colonies – James Otis leader
-purpose was to petition the king & Parliament to allow only colonial legislatures to levy taxes for colonial revenue
-“No Taxation . . .” Prime Minister Grenville said that colonists already had “virtual representation” that members of Parliament represented all British subjects
-the king ignores the petition
-the congress brings important colonial leaders together for the first time
-colonists began to BOYCOTT British goods (refuse goods & services)
-boycott called the NON-IMPORTATION AGREEMENT
-English merchant suffered – trade fell by 14%

THE SONS OF LIBERTY:
-group of angry colonists
-met to discuss problems
-used violent means to stop the sale of British imports – attacked tax collectors – tar & feature – burned English government buildings
-did not really do enough damage to force Parliament to repeal the act
-most people in England do not understand why the colonists are so upset

*Finally in 1766 the Stamp Act is repealed (taken away)

-1766 THE DECLATORY ACT:
-after the repeal of the Stamp Act Parliament passes this act
-asserts the right of Parliament to rule over & tax the colonists as it sees fit.

-1767 THE TOWNSHEND ACTS:
-indirect tax (Townshend & Franklin friends – Franklin suggest indirect tax)
-external tax payable on imports to America such as glass, lead, tea, paint, paper
-renvenues collected would pay for the salaries of British officials in the colonies
-England though the colonists would not object
-colonies object to the act
-over 1 million people drink tea, the tax is used to pay English officials and judges, & they fear they are losing the “power of the purse” financial & economic independence
-results is an attempt at a non-importation agreement (failed) – colonists are not as angry as they were with the Stamp Act (tax is not as heavy & direct) – more colonial smuggling -still talk of “No taxation . . .” in newspapers & pamphlets


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-1770 THE BOSTON MASSACRE:
-Boston is a hotbed of anti-British activities (Sons of Liberty)
-the British had landed more troops (1768) in Boston
-they are constantly tormented by the citizens especially the Sons of Liberty
-March 5, 1770 – 60 colonists attack British troops with snowballs
-British troops are referred to as “Redcoats” or “Lobsterbacks”
-tension rises and the Redcoats open fire on the crowd
-they killed & wounded innocent civilians
-Crispus Attucks first to die
-two Redcoats were tried and convicted (John Adams acted as their attorney)
-became a holiday in Boston

COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE:
-functioned to spread better communication between the colonies and to keep alive opposition to England
-colonists circulate letters about what is going on in their colonies with the British
-Samuel Adams (Mass.) “Taxation without representation is tyranny!”
-called for the colonies to unit in their efforts & stuggles
-the royal governor called it seditious (illegal and seeking to undermined the government)

-1770 THE TOWNSHED ACTS ARE REPELED:
-Prime Minister (North) repeals all taxes except the tax on tea
-he leave the tax on tea to remind the colonists that Parliament can still tax them
-the Quartering Act also expires
-tensions between England & the Colonies ease – all boycotts are dropped
-George III becomes king (age 32) – poor leader

-1770-1772 THE QUIET PERIOD:
-not much tension between England and the Colonies

THIS HEAT UP AGAIN:
-1772 England announces that it will pay the salaries of the Royal Governor & the superior Court in Mass. – took away the power from the colonies
-By 1772, The Committee of Correspondents had spread throughout the colonies (Virginia with Jefferson & Henry)

-1772 THE GASPEE INCIDENT:
-Rhode Islanders attack and burn a British warship run aground
-they try the captain for seizing smuggled goods
-colonists refuse to tell London who was responsible
-Committee of Correspondents uses this as propaganda

-1773 THE TEA ACT:
-allows the East India Tea Company to ship tea directly to America
-company has extra tea it cannot sell - some members of Parliament are stock holders
-gives the East India Company a monopoly
-actually it makes tea cheaper for the colonists (cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea)
-colonists feared that other English monopolies would start if this was allowed
-used of British tea implied that colonists agreed with England’s right to tax
-colonial merchants made no profit from tea sales
*In Mass. Meetings in Boston demanded that the governor send the tea back to England

-THE BOSTON TEA PARTY (DECEMBER 16, 1773)
-last demand to governor (Hutchinson) to remove tea ships was refused
-colonials dressed as Indians boarded tea ships and dumped the cargo into the water
-over $70,000 worth of tea – did not damage anything else
-most colonists supported the action (other port turned back tea ships NY, Phila.)

-1774 THE INTOLERABLE ACTS: (COERCIVE ACTS)
-King George III wants to force the colonies to accept the Tea Act & show Parliament that the king rules (political reasons in England)
-PARTS OF THE ACT:
1. BOSTON HARBOR IS CLOSED – to be lifted after the cost of the tea is paid
2.
BOSTON IS PLACED UNDER MARTIAL LAW (Gen. Gage)
3. KING’S OFFICIALS TRIED IN
ENGLAND
4. TOWN MEETINGS WERE ONLY ALLOWED ONCE A YEAR WITH THE GOVERNOR PERMISSION
5. THE QUARTERING ACT RETURNS
6.
THE QUEBEC ACT: western lands are taken away from colonies and given to Quebec
-also protects French Catholics

-RESULTS OF THE INTOLERABLE ACTS:
-fear that it could happen in other colonies
-Sam Adams calls for another boycott
-food and supplies are sent to Boston from other colonies

-1774 THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS:
-met in Philadelphia (Sept 5 – Oct 26)
-met to discuss Intolerable Acts and help Boston
-12 colonies sent reps. only Georgia did not
-each colony had one vote
-no legal right to meet under British law
1. agree to boycott all British goods unless the acts were repealed
2. urged colonies to set up and trail militia (army of citizens)
3. agreed to meet again the next May
4. agreed to sent supplies to
Boston
5. a plan for union failed by one vote

APRIL 19, 1775 LEXINGTON AND CONCORD:
-George III orders Gage to enforce Tea Act and other laws
-more redcoats sent to Boston (4000 total)
-Gage sends 700 troops out of Boston at night to attack and steal stockpiled colonial arms in Concord
-colonist learn of the plan
-Sons of Liberty hang two lanterns from the Old North Church to warn the public
-Paul Revere & William Dawes rode through the town alerting Minutemen “The British are coming!” – Revere is actually captured by English
-Minutemen were volunteers ready to resist the British at a minutes notice
-the British reach Lexington and are met by 70 Minutemen led by Capt. John Parker
-British order the crowd to go home – minutemen refuse
-a shot rings out (no one knows who fired first) – “The Shot Heard Around the World”
-both sides fire upon each other – 1 British killed – 8 colonists
-the minutemen flee – the English continue down the road to Concord
-the British get to Concord (6 miles from Lexington) and find no arms in the armory
-as they returned to Boston the are attacked by colonists
-colonists hid behind trees – hit and run tactics
-273 English were killed – 93 colonists