1.        "No friends & no money" - This is a good way to think of the United States after the Revolution. The nation was deeply in debt & no other nation was willing to aid the U.S. in any way.

2. Washington's Cabinet: (not outlined in Constitution/Group of advisors to the President)
**Washington unanimously elected by Electoral College 1789** John Adams VP -- Capital in New York City – then Philadelphia
Cabinet Members:
- Thomas Jefferson: Sec. of State
- Alexander Hamilton: Sec. of the Treasury
- Henry Knox: Sec. of War
- Edmond Randolph: Attorney General

3. The Bill of Rights: 1791 (written by J. Madison)
-1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution
-Document that protects individual freedoms
-Some states would not ratify the Constitution
without the protection of rights.

4. The Judiciary Act of 1789:
-The Constitution gave congress the power to create
the courts as they saw fit.
-Supreme Court organized, 5 justices and Chief Justice
-13 districts/3 circuit courts
-John Jay: 1st Chief Justice

5. Washington's Neutrality Proclamation:
-United States and its citizens will remain nuetral in English/French conflicts (Washington)

6. Alexander Hamilton: Born in Barbados
-aid to Washington during the Revolution
-appointed Sec. of Treasury under Washington
-favors: rich/business/England/a loose interpretation of the Constitution ("necessary & proper")("elastic clause")
/national bank/Tariff/manufacturing/taxes/STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
-Hamilton's Plan:
1. Sale of public land to raise money for gov.
2. series of excise taxes (whiskey)
3. protective tariff
4. Bank of the United States
5. federal government to assume state debts

*Jefferson objects (see Jefferson)* Political Parties are born out of their argument--Washington agrees to Hamilton's plan--the South (Jefferson) gets a new capital city built in the South (Washington D.C.)

7. Bank of the United States: (1790) Powerful private bank with the national government as major stock holder. Chartered for 20 years.

8. Thomas Jefferson: Sec. of State under Washington
favors: poor/farmers/strict interpretation of the Constitution/France/low tariff/no national bank

9. The Whiskey Rebellion: 1794 (1st test of the Const.)
-farmers in P.A. turn their corn into whiskey because it is cheaper to transport east.
-Hamilton's plan forces them to pay a tax - hurts their livlihood
-farmers protest and riot
-Washington sends 13,000 federal troops to end riot. (he personally commands the operation)
-Result: shows the power of the new federal government and the Constitution. Gov. able to react

10. Citizen Genet: French
-represents the French Republic (Revolution)
-tried to earn U.S. involvment in war vs. England
-very popular in the South (celebrity status)
-Washington asks him to leave

11. Battle of Fallen Timbers: 1794
-Gen. Anthony Wayne defeats Miami Indians
-Opens west up to settlement (Ohio Valley)

12. Treaty of Greenville: 1795
-opens Northwest Territory to settlement (no Indians)
-Native Americans get 20,000 for land & Peace

13. Jay Treaty: failure - treaty with Eng.
-England had been attacking U.S. ships
-Jay asks them to stop & leave forts in Ohio Valley
-Eng. says okay, only if US pays pre-Revolution debts

14. Pinkney Treaty: Treaty with Spain
-USA may use the port of New Orleans & the Miss. River

15. Washington's Farwell address:
-Washington serves 2 terms & retires
-He warns the nation in his final address
1. avoid foreign entanglements
2. avoid political parties

16. Early Political Parties:
-not in Constitution - born out of Hamilton's & Jefferson's arguments & differences
-The two parties
*FEDERALISTS: powerful central government/favor rich/distrust common people/favor business/urban/pro-British/conservative/support Constitution/others
*DEM-REPUBLICANS (Not the same as today!)
weak central government/support middle class farmers/favor state's rights/pro-French/support common man/others

17. John Adams: 2nd President of USA
-short. bald, & fat, educated
-hard to fill Washington's shoes
-Wins the Election of 1796 vs. Jefferson by 3 votes (electoral college)

18. XYZ Affair: 3 Americans sent to France to talk to Tallyrand
-given a note which said that they must pay to meet with Tallyrand signed XYZ (no one knows who XYZ was)
-USA refuses-war hysteria in USA
-1798-1800 undeclared war with France
-Americans capture French ships
-Napoleon takes over 1800 and agrees to meet
-paves the way for LA purchase


 

19. Alien & Sedition Acts:
-President may deport foreigners from the country
-no one may say or write anything bad about the gov.
-raised citizenship requirements
-Done by Federalists to take away new voters from the Republicans? Constitutional?
-Laws expire 1801

20. Election of 1800:
Results: Adams (Fed) 65 Pinkney (Fed) 64
Burr (Rep) 73 --Ties with Jefferson (Rep) 73
-If an election ties, The House of Representatives decides the election.
-Hamilton feels Jefferson would make a better president & convinces the House to vote for Jefferson
-Jefferson becomes President/Burr VP (Upset with Hamilton)
**1804 12th Amendment separate ballot for Pres & VP

21. Midnight Judges: Adams & the Federalists lose power in the executive and legislative branch in 1800.
-Presidency & Congress controlled by Republicans
-Federalists and Adams decide to create new courts and appoint new judges to give the Federalist party some power in the government. --Adams appoints judges until term expires (Remember: Judges are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate)

22. Marbury v. Madison: Judicial Review 1803
-John Marshall Chief Justice
-Courts can decide if a law violates the Constitution
-Give the courts power
-Marbury was a Midnight Judge that did not receive his post, because his appointment was not finished before the end of Adam's term. He sues Madison (Sec. of State) for his job. He loses the job. The court examines the law not his personal claim.

23. Louisiana Purchase: 1803
-France now under the control of Napoleon
-France also in charge of New Orleans
-Many Americans suggest sending an army to take over NO
-Jefferson sends Monroe/Livingston to France with order to offer Napoleon $10 Million for NO
-Napoleon says how about the whole territory for $15 Million? -- He needs money to fight in Europe
-No time to ask Jefferson so Monroe/Livingston buys the territory.
-The size of the nation doubles -- see map in book
(828,000 sq. miles @ $.03 an acre.
-Jefferson worries that the Constitution does not allow the government to buy land (strict interpretation)
-LA Purchase is Jefferson's finest accomplishment
-Lewis & Clark/Pike sent to explore new territory.

24. Alexander Hamilton vs. Arron Burr:
-Burr will kill Hamilton in a Duel
-Burr loses election of 1800 because of Hamilton
-Hamilton then campaigns against Burr in NY and Burr loses a chance to become governor of New York.
-Burr is then tried and acquitted for treason –battle between Jefferson & Marshall - tried to start his own country in the West with Wilkenson. (Burr Conspiracy)

25. Barbary Pirates: North Africa
-most Europeans nation pay pirates off
-USA refuses to pay
-Jefferson send the Marines (Tripoli)(Marine Hyme)
-4 years of fighting
-Treaty of Tripoli- some money paid to the pirates ends fighting
-US Navy gets experience - "mosquito fleet"

26. Impressment: American sailors are forced to work on English ships against their will


27. Embargo of 1807: Jefferson's 2nd Term
-England and France are at war!
-England passes a law - all ships must stop in England before sailing to the rest of Europe - if not they will be attacked!
-France passes a law - ships that have stoped in England will be seized by French!
-Both sides want to prevent the other from getting war supplies - USA caught in the middle
-US ships being attacked - people want war with England
-Jefferson knows that USA is too weak for war so he used an Embargo.
-the USA will not trade with other nations - replaced by Non Intercourse Act (may not trade with England or France)
-this hurts the USA more than Europe! People hate it --Big mistake!
-Jefferson unpopular and does not run for a 3rd term, returns to Monticello- Dies July 4, 1826 1 hour before Adams