"No friends & no money" - This is a good
way to think of the
- Thomas Jefferson: Sec. of State
- Alexander Hamilton: Sec. of the Treasury
- Henry Knox: Sec. of War
- Edmond Randolph: Attorney General
3. The Bill of Rights: 1791 (written by J. Madison)
-1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution
-Document that protects individual freedoms
-Some states would not ratify the Constitution
without the protection of rights.
4. The Judiciary Act of 1789:
-The Constitution gave congress the power to create
the courts as they saw fit.
-Supreme Court organized, 5 justices and Chief Justice
-13 districts/3 circuit courts
-John Jay: 1st Chief Justice
6. Alexander Hamilton: Born in Barbados
-aid to Washington during the Revolution
-appointed Sec. of Treasury under Washington
-favors: rich/business/England/a loose interpretation of the Constitution ("necessary & proper")("elastic clause")
/national bank/Tariff/manufacturing/taxes/STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
1. Sale of public land to raise money for gov.
2. series of excise taxes (whiskey)
3. protective tariff
4. Bank of the
5. federal government to assume state debts
*Jefferson objects (see Jefferson)* Political Parties are born out of their argument--Washington agrees to Hamilton's plan--the South (Jefferson) gets a new capital city built in the South (Washington D.C.)
7. Bank of the
8. Thomas Jefferson: Sec. of State under
favors: poor/farmers/strict interpretation of the Constitution/France/low tariff/no national bank
9. The Whiskey Rebellion: 1794 (1st test of the Const.)
-farmers in P.A. turn their corn into whiskey because it is cheaper to transport east.
-farmers protest and riot
-Result: shows the power of the new federal government and the Constitution. Gov. able to react
10. Citizen Genet: French
-tried to earn
-very popular in the South (celebrity status)
-Gen. Anthony Wayne defeats Miami Indians
-Opens west up to settlement (
12. Treaty of
-Native Americans get 20,000 for land & Peace
13. Jay Treaty: failure - treaty with
-Jay asks them to stop & leave forts in
14. Pinkney Treaty: Treaty with
-He warns the nation in his final address
1. avoid foreign entanglements
2. avoid political parties
16. Early Political Parties:
-not in Constitution - born out of Hamilton's & Jefferson's arguments & differences
-The two parties
*FEDERALISTS: powerful central government/favor rich/distrust common people/favor business/urban/pro-British/conservative/support Constitution/others
*DEM-REPUBLICANS (Not the same as today!)
weak central government/support middle class farmers/favor state's rights/pro-French/support common man/others
17. John Adams: 2nd President of USA
-short. bald, & fat, educated
-hard to fill
-Wins the Election of 1796 vs.
18. XYZ Affair: 3 Americans sent to France to talk to Tallyrand
-given a note which said that they must pay to meet with Tallyrand signed XYZ (no one knows who XYZ was)
-USA refuses-war hysteria in USA
-1798-1800 undeclared war with France
-Americans capture French ships
-Napoleon takes over 1800 and agrees to meet
-paves the way for LA purchase
19. Alien & Sedition Acts:
-President may deport foreigners from the country
-no one may say or write anything bad about the gov.
-raised citizenship requirements
-Done by Federalists to take away new voters from the Republicans? Constitutional?
-Laws expire 1801
20. Election of 1800:
Burr (Rep) 73 --Ties with Jefferson (Rep) 73
-If an election ties, The House of Representatives decides the election.
**1804 12th Amendment separate ballot for Pres & VP
21. Judges: Adams & the Federalists lose power in the executive and legislative branch in 1800.
-Presidency & Congress controlled by Republicans
-Federalists and Adams decide to create new courts and appoint new judges to give the Federalist party some power in the government. --
22. Marbury v. Madison: Judicial Review 1803
-John Marshall Chief Justice
-Courts can decide if a law violates the Constitution
-Give the courts power
-Marbury was a Midnight Judge that did not receive his post, because his appointment was not finished before the end of Adam's term. He sues Madison (Sec. of State) for his job. He loses the job. The court examines the law not his personal claim.
23. Louisiana Purchase: 1803
-France now under the control of Napoleon
-France also in charge of New Orleans
-Many Americans suggest sending an army to take over NO
-Jefferson sends Monroe/Livingston to France with order to offer Napoleon $10 Million for NO
-Napoleon says how about the whole territory for $15 Million? -- He needs money to fight in Europe
-No time to ask Jefferson so Monroe/Livingston buys the territory.
-The size of the nation doubles -- see map in book
(828,000 sq. miles @ $.03 an acre.
-Jefferson worries that the Constitution does not allow the government to buy land (strict interpretation)
-LA Purchase is Jefferson's finest accomplishment
-Lewis & Clark/Pike sent to explore new territory.
24. Alexander Hamilton vs. Arron Burr:
-Burr will kill Hamilton in a Duel
-Burr loses election of 1800 because of Hamilton
-Hamilton then campaigns against Burr in NY and Burr loses a chance to become governor of New York.
-Burr is then tried and acquitted for treason –battle between Jefferson & Marshall - tried to start his own country in the West with Wilkenson. (Burr Conspiracy)
25. Barbary Pirates: North Africa
-most Europeans nation pay pirates off
-USA refuses to pay
-Jefferson send the Marines (Tripoli)(Marine Hyme)
-4 years of fighting
-Treaty of Tripoli- some money paid to the pirates ends fighting
-US Navy gets experience - "mosquito fleet"
26. Impressment: American sailors are forced to work on English ships against their will
27. Embargo of
1807: Jefferson's 2nd Term
-England and France are at war!
-England passes a law - all ships must stop in England before sailing to the rest of Europe - if not they will be attacked!
-France passes a law - ships that have stoped in England will be seized by French!
-Both sides want to prevent the other from getting war supplies - USA caught in the middle
-US ships being attacked - people want war with England
-Jefferson knows that USA is too weak for war so he used an Embargo.
-the USA will not trade with other nations - replaced by Non Intercourse Act (may not trade with England or France)
-this hurts the USA more than Europe! People hate it --Big mistake!
-Jefferson unpopular and does not run for a 3rd term, returns to Monticello- Dies July 4, 1826 1 hour before Adams