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Unit #9: Depression & Dictators: Czar to USSR
 
  Learning Target: I can ANALYZE the causes of the Great Depression and its influence on the rise of totalitarian dictators. 

I know I know it when: I can DESCRIBE how Stalin, Mussolini, Franco, and Hitler took, consolidated, and maintained power.

I am learning this because: It has been said that "Freedom is never more that one generation away from extinction.
Therefore we must learn how tyrants and dictators can rise to power and deny people their freedoms if they are left unchecked.  


Class Notes: Russian Revolution Class Notes


Directions:
 
Directions: Please follow the directions in the box below to complete the assignment.  Be sure to complete the assignment and carefully check your work before submitting your assignment for a grade. 



Part 1: The Czar Resists Change 

1.   The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a very long fuse. The explosion came in 1917, yet the fuse had been burning for nearly a century. In this assignment we will look at the long history of
      Russian revolutionaries and the Rise of the USSR.  The USSR would play a major role in the second half of the 20th century. 


      Take a moment to download the Czar to USSR Student AssignmentBe sure to click File > Save As Google Slides before you begin


2.  Now, read the following passage about the Czar Resists Change in your Czar to USSR Student Assignment.  Use your highlighter tool inside your Czar to USSR Student Assignment Use your
     highlighter or bold tool
to identify the most important information in the text.

 

The CZAR Resists Change:

 

The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a very long fuse. The explosion came in 1917, yet the fuse had been burning for nearly a century. The cruel, oppressive rule of most 19th-century czars caused widespread social unrest for decades. Army officers revolted in 1825. Secret revolutionary groups plotted to overthrow the government. In 1881, revolutionaries angry over the slow pace of political change assassinated the reform-minded czar, Alexander II. Russia was heading toward a full-scale reIn 1881, Alexander II succeeded his father, Alexander II, and stopped all reforms and changes in Russia. Like his grandfather Nicholas I, Alexander III clung to the principles of autocracy, a form of government in which he had total power. Anyone who questioned the absolute authority of the czar, worshiped outside the Russian Orthodox Church, or spoke a language other than Russian was labeled dangerous.  

 

To wipe out revolutionaries, Alexander III turned Russia used harsh measures. He imposed strict censorship codes on published materials into a police and written documents, including private letters. His secret police carefully state, teeming with spies and informers.   To establish a uniform Russian culture, Alexander II oppressed other national groups within Russia. He made Russian the official language of the empire and forbade the use of minority languages, such as Polish, in schools. Alexander made Jews the target of persecution. A wave of pogroms, organized violence against Jews, broke out in many parts of Russia. Police and soldiers stood by and watched Russian citizens loot and destroy Jewish homes, stores, and synagogues. When Nicholas II became czar in 1894, he continued the tradition of Russian autocracy. Unfortunately, it blinded him to the changing conditions of his times. volution!

 

 

 


2.  Answer the questions at the end of each slide in your Czar to USSR Student Assignment

   
1. What does the term “autocracy” mean?      

2.  What groups of people did the Czar consider to be “dangerous?”        

3.  What measures did Alexander II take to wipe out revolutionaries? 


3.  Be prepared to discuss the passage with the class.



Part 2: Russia Industrializes

1.  Now, read the following passage about Russian Industrialism in your Czar to USSR Student Assignment.  Use your highlighter tool inside your Czar to USSR Student Assignment. Use your highlighter or bold tool to identify the most important information
     in the text.

 

Russia Industrializes:

Rapid industrialization changed the face of the Russian economy. The number of factories more than doubled between 1863 and 1900. Still, Russia lagged behind the industrial nations of western Europe. In the 1890s, Nicholas’s most capable minister launched a program to move the country forward. To finance the buildup of Russian industries, the government sought foreign investors and raised taxes. These steps boosted the growth of heavy industry, particularly steel. By around 1900, Russia had become the world’s fourth-ranking producer of steel. Only the United States, Germany, and Great Britain produced more steel. With the help of British and French investors, work began on the world’s longest continuous rail line the Trans-Siberian Railway. Begun in 1891, the railway was not completed until 1916. It connected European Russia in the west with Russian ports on the Pacific Ocean in the east.

 

 

 


2.  Answer the questions at the end of each slide in your Czar to USSR Student Assignment

   

1.  Around 1900, Russia became the 4th largest producer of which product? 

2.  Where did the Tran-Siberian Railroad begin?  Where did it end?

3.  How do you think the Trans-Siberian Railroad helped Russia industrialize? 




3.  Be prepared to discuss the passage with the class.



Part 3: Industrialization Stirs Discontent

1.  Now, read the following passage about Russian Industrialism in your Czar to USSR Student Assignment.  Use your highlighter tool inside your Czar to USSR Student Assignment. Use your highlighter or bold tool to identify the most important information
     in the text.

 

Rise of Marxists and Lenin

Rapid industrialization stirred discontent among the people of Russia. The growth of factories brought new problems, such as grueling working conditions, miserably low wages, and child labor. The government outlawed trade unions.  To try to improve their lives, workers unhappy with their low standard of living and lack of political power organized strikes. 

 Several revolutionary movements began to grow and compete for power.  A group that followed the views of Karl Marx, the father of Communism, successfully established a following in Russia. They were known as Marxist revolutionaries.  Marxists believed that the industrial class of workers would someday overthrow the Czar.  These workers would then form “a dictatorship of the proletariat.”  Proletariat referred to working class people.  In a proletariat state, the workers would rule the country. 

  In 1903, Russian Marxists split into two groups over revolutionary tactics. The more moderate Mensheviks wanted a broad base of popular support for the revolution. The more radical Bolsheviks supported a small number of committed revolutionaries willing to sacrifice everything for change.

The major leader of the Bolsheviks was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov.  He adopted the name of Lenin.  He had an engaging personality and was an excellent organizer. He was also ruthless!  These traits would ultimately help him gain command of the Bolsheviks. In the early 1900s, Lenin fled to western Europe to avoid arrest by the Czarist regime. From there he maintained contact with other Bolsheviks. Lenin then waited until he could safely return to Russia.

 


2.  Answer the questions at the end of each slide in your Czar to USSR Student Assignment

1.  How did Russian industrialization stir discontent with the Russian people?

2.  What did the Marxists revolutionaries believe would happen in Russia?

3.  Define the term proletariat.

4.  Who was Lennon?  What characteristics made Lennon a leader in the Marxist movement?

5.  What were the Bolsheviks willing to sacrifice for change?

 6.  Why did Lennon leave Russia?



3.  Be prepared to discuss the passage with the class.





Part 4: Crisis at Home and Abroad

1.  Now, read the following passage about Russian Industrialism in your Czar to USSR Student Assignment.  Use your highlighter tool inside your Czar to USSR Student Assignment. Use your highlighter or bold tool to identify the most important information
     in the text.

 

Russo-Japanese War

The revolutionaries would not have to wait long to realize their visions. Between 1904 and 1917, Russia faced a series of crises. These events showed the czar’s weakness and paved the way for revolution. The Russo-Japanese War In the late 1800s, Russia and Japan competed for control of Korea and Manchuria. The two nations signed a series of agreements over the territories, but Russia broke them. Japan retaliated by attacking the Russians at Port Arthur, Manchuria, in February 1904. News of repeated Russian losses sparked unrest at home and led to a revolt in the midst of the war.

 

Bloody Sunday: The Revolution of 1905

On January 22, 1905, about 200,000 workers and their families approached the czar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. They carried a petition asking for better working conditions, more personal freedom, and an elected national legislature. Nicholas II’s generals ordered soldiers to fire on the crowd. More than 1,000 were wounded and several hundred were killed.  Bloody Sunday provoked a wave of strikes and violence that spread across the on “Bloody Sunday.” country. In October 1905, Nicholas reluctantly promised more freedom. He approved the creation of the Duma (DOO•muh). Russia’s first parliament. The first Duma met in May 1906. Its leaders were moderates who wanted Russia to become a constitutional monarchy similar to Britain. But because he was hesitant to share his power, the czar dissolved the Duma after ten weeks.

 

World War I: The Final Blow 

In 1914, Nicholas II made the fateful decision to drag Russia into World War I. Russia was unprepared to handle the military and economic costs. Its weak generals and poorly equipped troops were no match for the German army. German machine guns mowed down advancing Russians by the thousands. Defeat followed defeat. Before a year had passed, more than 4 million Russian soldiers had been killed, wounded, or taken prisoner. As in the Russo- Japanese War, Russia’s involvement in World War I revealed the weaknesses of czarist rule and military leadership. 

In 1915, Nicholas moved his headquarters to the war front. From there, he hoped to rally his discouraged troops to victory. His wife, Czarina Alexandra, ran the government while he was away. She ignored the czar’s chief advisers. Instead, she fell under the influence of the mysterious Rasputin (ras•PYOO•tihn). A self-described “holy man,” he claimed to have magical healing powers.

Nicholas and Alexandra’s son, Alexis, suffered from hemophilia, a life-threatening disease. Rasputin seemed to ease the boy’s symptoms. To show her gratitude, Alexandra allowed Rasputin to make key political decisions. He opposed reform measures and obtained powerful positions for his friends. In 1916, a group of nobles murdered Rasputin. They feared his increasing role in government affairs.

 

Meanwhile, on the war front Russian soldiers mutinied, deserted, or ignored orders. On the home front, food and fuel supplies were dwindling. Prices were wildly inflated. People from all classes were clamoring for change and an end to the war. Neither Nicholas nor Alexandra proved capable of tackling these enormous problems.

 The March Revolution

The March Revolution In March 1917, women textile workers in Petrograd led a citywide strike. In the next five days, riots flared up over shortages of bread and fuel. Nearly 200,000 workers swarmed the streets shouting, “Down with the autocracy!” and “Down with the war!” At first the soldiers obeyed orders to shoot the rioters but later sided with them.

 

The Czar Steps Down

The local protest exploded into a general uprising called the March Revolution. It forced Czar Nicholas II to abdicate his throne. A year later revolutionaries executed Nicholas and his family. The three-century czarist rule of the Romanovs finally collapsed. The March Revolution succeeded in bringing down the czar. Yet it failed to set up a strong government to replace his regime.

 

Leaders of the Duma established a provisional government, or temporary government. Alexander Kerensky headed it. His decision to continue fighting in World War I cost him the support of both soldiers and civilians. As the war dragged on, conditions inside Russia worsened. Angry peasants demanded land. City workers grew more radical. Socialist revolutionaries, competing for power, formed soviets. Soviets were local councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers. In many cities, the soviets had more influence than the provisional government.

 


2.  Answer the questions at the end of each slide in your Czar to USSR Student Assignment

1.  Why did Russia fight a war with Japan?  What was the result of the Russo-Japanese War?

 2.  What did the workers and their family want from the Czar during their march on the palace at St. Petersburg in 1905?  How did Czar Nicholas II react to the workers demands?

 3.  What is the “Duma?”

4.  Who was “Rasputin?”  How did he gain so much power?  What eventually happened to  Rasputin?

 5.  What problems did Russia face during World War I?

6.  What did the Russo-Japanese War and World War I show the Russian people about the power of the Czar?

7.  Define the term “Soviets.”



3.  Be prepared to discuss the passage with the class.




Part 5: Rise of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

1.  Now, read the following passage about Russian Industrialism in your Czar to USSR Student Assignment.  Use your highlighter tool inside your Czar to USSR Student Assignment. Use your highlighter or bold tool to identify the most important information
     in the text.

 

Rise of the USSR

 

Lenin Returns to Russia The Germans believed that Lenin and his Bolshevik supporters would stir unrest in Russia and hurt the Russian war effort against Germany. They arranged Lenin’s return to Russia after many years of exile. Traveling in a sealed railway boxcar, Lenin reached Petrograd in April 1917.   The Bolshevik Revolution Lenin and the Bolsheviks soon gained control of the Petrograd soviet, as well as the soviets in other major Russian cities. By the fall of 1917, people in the cities were rallying to the call, “All power to the soviets.” Lenin’s slogan “Peace, Land, and Bread” gained widespread appeal. Lenin decided to take action. The Provisional Government Topples In November 1917, without warning, armed factory workers stormed the Winter Palace in Petrograd.

Calling themselves the Bolshevik Red Guards, they took over government offices and arrested the leaders of the provisional government. Kerensky and his colleagues disappeared almost as quickly as the czarist regime they had replaced.

 

Bolsheviks in Power

Within days after the Bolshevik takeover, Lenin ordered that all farmland be distributed among the peasants. Lenin and the Bolsheviks gave control of factories to the workers. The Bolshevik government also signed a truce with Germany to stop all fighting and began peace talks.

In March 1918, Russia and Germany signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Russia surrendered a large part of its territory to Germany and its allies. The humiliating terms of this treaty triggered widespread anger among many Russians. They objected to the Bolsheviks and their policies and to the murder of the royal family. Civil War Rages in Russia The Bolsheviks now faced a new challenge stamping out their enemies at home. Their opponents formed the White Army. The White Army was made up of very different groups. There were those groups who supported the return to rule by the czar, others who wanted democratic government, and even socialists who opposed Lenin’s style of socialism. Only the desire to defeat the Bolsheviks united the White Army. The groups barely cooperated with each other. At one point there were three White Armies fighting against the Bolsheviks’ Red Army.

 

The revolutionary leader, Leon Trotsky, expertly commanded the Bolshevik Red Army. From 1918 to 1920, civil war raged in Russia. Several Western nations, including the United States, sent military aid and forces to Russia to help the White Army. However, they were of little help.

 

Lenin Restores Order

War and revolution destroyed the Russian economy. Trade was at a standstill. Industrial production dropped, and many skilled workers fled to other countries. Lenin turned to reviving the economy and restructuring the government. In March 1921, Lenin temporarily put aside his plan for a state-controlled economy. Instead, he resorted to a small-scale version of capitalism called the New Economic Policy (NEP). The reforms under the NEP allowed peasants to sell their surplus crops instead of turning them over to the government. The government kept control of major industries, banks, and means of communication, but it let some small factories, businesses, and farms operate under private ownership. The government also encouraged foreign investment.  Thanks partly to the new policies and to the peace that followed the civil war, the country slowly recovered. By 1928, Russia’s farms and factories were producing as much as they had before World War I.

 

 

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Bolshevik leaders saw nationalism as a threat to unity and party loyalty. To keep nationalism in check, Lenin organized Russia into several self- governing “republics” under a strong central government. In 1922, the country was named the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), in honor of the councils that helped launch the Bolshevik Revolution. Within the USSR, a ruthless government prevented nationalism and personal freedoms from threatening the state.  The Bolsheviks renamed their party to the Communist Party. The name came from the writings of Karl Marx the father of Communism.

Stalin Becomes Dictator

Lenin suffered a stroke in 1922. He survived, but the incident set in motion competition for heading up the Communist Party. Two of the most notable men were Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. Stalin was cold, hard, and impersonal. During his early days as a Bolshevik, he changed his name to Stalin, which means “man of steel” in Russian. The name fit well.

Stalin began his ruthless climb to the head of the government between 1922 and 1927. In 1922, as general secretary of the Communist Party, he worked behind the scenes to move his supporters into positions of power. Lenin believed that Stalin was a dangerous man. Shortly before he died in 1924, Lenin wrote, “Comrade Stalin . . . has concentrated enormous power in his hands, and I am not sure that he always knows how to use that power with sufficient caution.” By 1928, Stalin was in total command of the Communist Party. Trotsky was forced into exile in 1929.  He was later assassinated.  Stalin now stood poised to wield absolute power as a dictator of the USSR.

 


2.  Answer the questions at the end of each slide in your Czar to USSR Student Assignment

1.  Why did the German’s arrange Lenin’s return to Russia?

2.  What was Lennon’s slogan?

3.  What was the name of the treaty Russia and Germany signed to end World War I?  What were the terms of the treaty?

4.  Who were the “Bolshevik Red Guard?”  Who was their commander?

5.  What was the “White Army?”

6.  Describe the changes the Bolsheviks made to agriculture and industry after taking control of Russia.

7.  What did the Bolsheviks rename their party? 

8.  Explain what the term USSR means.

9.  How did Stalin become the dictator of the USSR?



3.  Be prepared to discuss the passage with the class.




Part 5: From Czar to USSR Timeline

1.  Based on what you learned, number the events below in the order in which they happened in your Czar to USSR Student Assignment.  Be sure to look back in the reading to check your answers.   You can also use your cut and paste tool to place them in the correct chronological
     order. 

 

 

_____ Russia is renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

 

_____ Stalin becomes dictator

 

_____ Russia industrializes and produces steel.

 

_____ Russia is defeated in the Russo-Japanese War

 

_____ Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed

 

_____ Alexander II stops all reforms in Russia to preserve autocracy

 

_____ The growth of factories brought new problems, such as grueling working conditions, miserably low

            wages, and child labor.

 

_____ Trotsky defeats the White Army

 

_____ Lenin returns to Russia

 

_____ Marxist revolutionaries establish a following in Russia.

 

_____ Bolsheviks take power in Russia and redistribute farmland

 

_____ Bloody Sunday

 

 

_____ The Tran-Siberian Railroad was constructed

 

 

_____ Lenin takes control of the Bolsheviks and eventually flees Russia

 


3.  Be prepared to discuss the timeline with the class.

4.  Compose a well written essay (3-5 paragraphs) answering the following question:

Explain how Russia went from an absolute monarch in the Czar, to the communist dictatorship known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

 

 - Help!  - You should write 3 to 5 paragraphs.  I would begin by choosing 3 or 4 main events in the timeline above you can explain.  You will also want to write an introduction and a conclusion.  Yes you have to complete this part of the assignment. 







Part 6: Submit your work for a grade


 1.   Once you have completed your Czar to USSR Student Assignment, use the Google Form below to submit your work for a grade.  Be sure to check
       your answers using the Czar to USSR Student Assignment

 2.    Carefully check your answer and submit your work for a grade.  You must have answered the questions to do well on this submission. 

      Submit Assignment

3.    Good Job!




  World History with Mr. Gigliotti | Valley Forge High School | Parma Hts., OH | gigliottip@parmacityschools.org