Unit #9: Depression & Dictators: Your World 100 Years Ago: The Roaring 1920's
  Learning Target: I can ANALYZE the causes of the Great Depression and its influence on the rise of totalitarian dictators. 

I know I know it when: I can DESCRIBE how Stalin, Mussolini, Franco, and Hitler took, consolidated, and maintained power.

I am learning this because: It has been said that "Freedom is never more that one generation away from extinction.
Therefore we must learn how tyrants and dictators can rise to power and deny people their freedoms if they are left unchecked.  

Class Notes:

Directions: Please follow the directions in the box below to complete the assignment.  Be sure to complete the assignment and carefully check your work before submitting your assignment for a grade. 

Part 1: Your World 100 Years Ago: The Roaring 1920's 

1.   The Roaring 20's provides an escape for people from the horrors of World War I.  During the 1920's radios, sports, and Hollywood entertained the masses.  People could afford to buy automobiles and air
      travel became a reality.  The 1920's final brought Woman's Sufferage and the iconic flapper.  However, in a Europe still devastated by war trouble is just around the corner. 
      Take a moment to download the Your World 100 Years Ago The Roaring 1920's Student Assignment.  Be sure to click File > Save As Google Slides before you begin

2.  Now, read the following passages about the 1920's in your Your World 100 Years Ago The Roaring 1920's Student Assignment..  Use your highlighter tool inside your
    Your World 100 Years Ago The Roaring 1920's Student Assignment. Use your highlighter or bold tool to identify the most important information in the text.   Answer the questions at the end
    of each section in your Your World 100 Years Ago The Roaring 1920's Student Assignment.  Do not forget to complete the "Interactive" questions.



Part 1: Introduction to the 1920's 

The United States had played the decisive role in the Allied victory in World War I. Its entry into World War I tipped the balance of power in favor of the Allies.  A sense of post war joy was felt around the world.  However the 1920’s offered both diversions and challenges for a “lost generation” trying to move on from war. 


Following World War I, the United States grew to become one of the world’s largest economies. America’s oceans had protected its people, factories, and cities from war.   During the 1920’s America entered a decade of prosperity known as the “Roaring 20s!”  Prohibition led to the rise of speak-easies, Al Capone, flappers, and the Jazz Age. 


By contrast, most of the European nations had been devastated by World War I.  Over 40 million people were killed or wounded during World War I.  Each European nation that took part in the war lost both soldiers and civilians.  Some French towns had few young men left as most of them had been killed along the Western Front.  Many European cities, towns, and farms had been damaged by the fighting.  Shell shock and the horrors of war scared a “lost generation.” 

Europeans during the 1920s struggled to rebuild their nations and their lives.  They also were burdened with huge war debts they accumulated during World War I.  New nations created after Versailles felt growing pains, young democracies sought to take root, while Russia became a communist dictatorship and the USSR. 


Europeans often attempted to escaped to their post war circumstances by adopting many new cultural phenomenon’s from the United States.  By the end of the 1920’s however the party was over.  Soon the world would face economic depression and the rise of fascist dictators. 


Part 1: Questions:


1.  Which nation played a major role in the final outcome of World War I?




2.  Compare and contrast life in the United States and life in Europe following World War I.  Be sure to give details from the text in Part 1.  








Part 2: Entertainment a Century Ago!


The 1920s saw the United States become the leading cultural power for the first time, a position the United States still holds today.  Americans spread this culture through media that in the 1920s included Jazz, flappers, radio, Hollywood movies.  In the 1920s, new popular trends, technologies, and forms of entertainment changed how people interacted with one another and the world around them.  These new trends also spread to Europe and beyond. 


A new popular musical style called “jazz” emerged in the United States. It was developed by musicians, mainly African Americans, in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago. It swept the United States and Europe. The lively, loose beat of jazz seemed to capture the new freedom of the age.  Jazz would eventually lead to one of the best known icons of the 1920s “the flapper.”  You will be listening to some Jazz soon (https://youtu.be/gTevoUhDeoM)


The 1920s were the years when Hollywood began to capture the world’s attention.  Its “films” attracted crowds of movie goers in Europe and America, and became the major source of public entertainment.   The king of Hollywood’s silent screen was the English-born Charlie Chaplin, a comic genius best known for his portrayal of the lonely little tramp bewildered by life. You will be watching Charlie Chaplin soon (https://youtu.be/ecUlE1bbzAk). The whole experience was greatly enhanced when silent movies gave way to “talkies,” movies with sound, in the 1920s!


Radio also was able to bring entertainment right into people’s homes!  Marconi, the inventor of the radio, conducted his first successful experiments with radio in 1895. However, the real push for radio development came during World War I. In 1920, the world’s first commercial radio station “KDKA” in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania began broadcasting. Almost overnight, radio mania swept the United States. Every major city had stations broadcasting news, plays, and even live sporting events. Soon most families owned a radio.


The United States also saw a darker side of life in the 1920s when the prohibition of alcohol led to the rise of speak-easies, or places to drink illegal alcohol, arose across the United States.  Powerful gangsters such as Al Capone profited greatly from prohibition and became powerful.  The “Tommy Gun” that had been developed for trench warfare on the Western Front, soon became a symbol of the ruthless gangland violence in Chicago and other American cities.  


Part 2: Questions:


1.  How did popular culture in the United States begin to influence the rest of the world in the 1920’s?




2.  Describe how Jazz was developed in the United States.




3.  Why was Hollywood important in the 1920’s?  Who was Charlie Chaplin?




4.  What major technological advanced during the 1920’s helped make movies more enjoyable?



**5.  Get Interactive!  Use the link below to listen to some classic 1920’s Jazz! 





Answer the following questions:


What is your overall opinion of Jazz Music?


Do you know how this music is being played? 



**6.  Get Interactive!  Use the link below to meet Charlie Chaplin!




Watch the entire video clip.  Explain what this film is about?




7.  Who invented the radio?  What could I listen to in the 1920’s on a radio?  What was KDKA?




8.  What law lead to the rise of Al Capone during the 1920’s?  How did he profit from this law?






Part 3: Sports a Century Ago!


The Roaring Twenties are famous for many things, one of the most often forgotten is 1920s sports!

The 1920’s became the Golden Age of American Sports!  The historic home runs records of Babe Ruth, player Red Grange and coach Knute Rockne's domination in football, Jack Dempsey's vicious knock-outs, and Man o'Wars brilliant races, the sports of the 1920s have become legendary to fans around the world.


Newspapers turned sports into an American pastime that gave relief to an American public searching for some relief after the atrocities of World War 1. Sportswriters became the character delivering the news to a public that couldn't get enough.  People rushed to newsstands to read about 1920s sports especially boxing, horseracing, and baseball. 


Baseball was the most popular sport during the 1920’s.  Babe Ruth was by far the most popular athlete of the 1920s. He had a big personality, knew how to have fun, and became hard swinging hero of the New York Yankees'.   Ruth excelled at baseball in an era before television, steroids, free agency and million dollar contracts.  In 1927, Ruth hit an amazing 60 homeruns in a single season.  Ruth’s home run power helped baseball recover its reputation after the “Black Sox” scandal of 1919.  "The Babe" embodied the spirit of 1920s sports, and The Roaring Twenties. In his day, he was revered as a hero in the streets of New York.


Part 3: Questions:


1.  How did sports in the 1920’s help people recover from World War I?


2.  What sports were popular in the 1920s?


3.  Get Interactive: Watch the video about Babe Ruth in the 1920’s. 




Why do you think Babe Ruth was so popular during the 1920’s?






Part 4: Transportation A Century Ago


World War I’s technological advances were put to use to improve transportation after the war.

The automobile benefited from a host of wartime innovations and improvements such as: electric starters, air-filled tires, and more powerful engines. Cars were now sleek and brightly polished, complete with headlights and chrome-plated bumpers.


Automobiles soon became inexpensive enough for the common man on both sides of the Atlantic.  In prewar Britain, autos were owned exclusively by the rich. British factories produced 34,000 autos in 1913. After the war, prices dropped, and the middle class could afford cars. By 1937, the British were producing 511,000 autos a year.  In the United States, Henry Ford was using an assembly line to mass produce the Model T, known as the “Tin Lizy.”   The advent of the assembly line made cars affordable for average citizens.  In 1925 a Model T only cost $290


Increased auto use by the average family led to lifestyle changes. More people traveled for pleasure. In Europe and the United States, new businesses opened to serve the mobile tourist. The auto also affected where people lived and worked. People moved to suburbs and commuted to work in the cities.


Air travel also began to take off (LOL) in the 1920s.  In 1919, two British pilots made the first successful flight across the Atlantic, from Newfoundland to Ireland. In 1927, an American pilot named Charles Lindbergh captured world attention with a 33-hour solo flight from New York to Paris. Most of the world’s major passenger airlines were established during the 1920s. At first only the rich were able to afford air travel. Still, everyone enjoyed the exploits of the aviation pioneers, including those of Amelia Earhart. She was an American who, in 1932, became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic.


The advances in transportation and communication that followed the World War I had brought the world in closer touch. Global prosperity came to depend on the economic well-being of all major nations, especially the United States.  This would eventually lead to a global depression in the 1930s.



Part 4: Questions:


1.  Which wartime innovations would you find in a 1920’s automobile?




2.  How did Henry Ford make cars affordable for average citizens?




3.  Who was Charles Lindbergh?  What did he accomplish?




4.  How did improvements in transportation change world economics?



**5.  Get Interactive!  Take flight with Charles Lindbergh!  Watch the video below. 





Make a list of 3 facts you learned about his famous transatlantic flight.




Part 5: Women a Century Ago


During the “Roaring Twenties”, popular trends such as jazz music lead to the popularity of the “flapper” style for many women.  Flappers were young women who rejected traditional norms of feminine behavior rooted in Victorian England.  This trend soon spread to Europe.  Such trends offered an outlet for post war depression and changed many of the stuffy attitudes which had characterized the pre-war World War I Victorian era.


These more liberated times for women, were also taking place in the political world.  The idea of Women’s Suffrage continued to gain support around the world.  In Britain women gained the right to vote in 1918.  The United States soon followed with the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920. 


As a result of World War I, more Women also began entering the workplace.  With young men headed off to war, there was a need for female workers across all industries.  Many women worked in factories making arms to support the war effort.  Following World War I many women continued to work. 


Part 5: Questions:


1.  How did the “flapper” trend in the 1920’s begin to change the world for women?




2.  When and where were woman granted suffrage after World War I?




3.  How did World War I begin the change the role of women in the workplace?




**4.  Get Interactive!  Watch the short video about Women in the 1920’s.





Make a list of 3 facts you learned about women in the 1920’s.






Part 6: 20s Troubles


The 1920’s also brought political problems throughout Europe.  The problems were the first sign that the World could be on a path to yet another war.    After World War I both Britain and France faced crippling war debts, deep economic recession and high unemployment. In Britain, poor labor relations even led to a short General Strike in 1926.  France had the added challenge of rebuilding its economy in areas which had been badly damaged in war. Its politics was to know bitter divisions and frequent changes of government.


In Italy, which had also been on the Allied side, experienced all these problems, and more. It had been particularly hard hit by the war, suffering very high casualties in the Alpine battles it had fought, and had experiencing a string of defeats. The Italian people ended the war deeply demoralized, and feeling let down by their government after the war when it failed to secure major gains from the peace treaties.  Unrest became widespread in the industrial towns, and a real fear of communist revolution spread through the country. Popular disillusionment with democratic politicians and a strong desire for stability led the king of Italy to turn to the one man who seemed to promise strong government. This was Benito Mussolini, the leader of the Fascist party. He formed a government in 1922, and soon established a one-party police state.


In Germany the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles and the fact that the blame for the war was laid exclusively at the door of Germany, deeply embittered the German people. They faced more difficulties when hyper-inflation, the devaluing of money, in 1923 destroyed the wealth of much of the middle classes.


The currency was stabilized the following year, and the Dawes Plan of 1924, followed a few years later by the Young Plan of 1929, rescheduled the reparation payments to make them more bearable. The later 1920s saw a measure of economic growth return to Germany.


Apart from the new countries that emerged from the wreck of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, there were other newly-independent nations in Europe. The Russian Revolution and the subsequent civil war had liberated Poland and the Baltic states of Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania from Russian domination.


Most of these newly-independent countries in eastern and central Europe initially adopted democratic forms of government, but the severe economic problems they experienced, plus fear of Communism, led many to soon turn to more right-wing, authoritarian regimes. In fact, by the mid-1930s Czechoslovakia was the only country in central and eastern Europe to retain its democracy.


Part 6: Questions:


1.  What kind of economic problems did Britain and France face after World War I?  How did each of

     these problems effect the country?



2.  What types of problems did Italy face after World War I?  As a result, who became the leader of Italy?



3.  What types of problems did Germany face after World War I?



4.  What did the Dawes and Young Plans hope to accomplish?



5.  What was a common problem faced by many newly independent countries in Europe?


2.  Be prepared to discuss the passage with the class.

Part 2: Submit your work for a grade

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       your answers using the Your World 100 Years Ago The Roaring 1920's Student Assignment

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  World History with Mr. Gigliotti | Valley Forge High School | Parma Hts., OH | gigliottip@parmacityschools.org